‘When Will It End?’

It would seem that ‘Reconciliation’ ISN’T about bringing us closer together as fellow Canadians, but about recognizing our differences and further enshrining them. Our federal government, dominated by the billion-dollar Aboriginal Industry, is negotiating EVEN MORE Treaties, rather than ending this anachronistic practice once and for all. But don’t worry – it’s only going to cost Canadians more money…and another little piece of our country governed by different rules than the rest of Canada, with rights based on race/ethnicity.

We can only reiterate what we have previously stated:
“Across Canada, frustration and anger continues to grow at the endless billion-dollar ‘Treaty Process’ — negotiating new treaties, reopening and ‘rewriting’ old treaties, “consultation”, “accommodation”, financial payoffs, land payoffs, urban reserves, etc. — and the accompanying illegal blockades (with police usually refusing to enforce the law) that interfere with the lawful activities of the rest of Canadians.

“The whole process undermines the Canadian political system, erodes the confidence of the Canadian people in the future of their Nation, and negatively impacts both the present and the future state of the Canadian economy…while mainly benefitting the lawyer-driven Aboriginal Industry, at the expense of everyone else.

“This will only get worse with the growing aggressiveness of Aboriginal Bands in asserting claims to their so-called ‘traditional territories’.”

“Acknowledging and honouring our past is fundamental to advancing reconciliation and supporting the work of nation rebuilding. The Government is honoured to be signing this historic Agreement, setting the stage for a Whitecap Dakota Treaty and a true nation-to-nation relationship…”
–Carolyn Bennett, M.D., P.C., M.P.
Minister of Crown-‘Indigenous’ Relations and Northern Affairs

“The Government of Canada and Whitecap Dakota ‘First Nation’ {a ‘nation’ of 658 people} today marked an important step on the road to ‘reconciliation’ and a ‘renewed relationship’ by signing a historic ‘Framework Agreement for a Whitecap Dakota Treaty’.

“The Framework Agreement sets the stage for exploratory discussions to identify ways to achieve meaningful and lasting ‘reconciliation’. As Whitecap is not a party to any of the historic numbered treaties or any modern treaty, the discussions will include joint work to see if the parties can find the common ground for moving forward into treaty negotiations…

{They were “not a party to any of the historic numbered treaties or any modern treaty” because:
Whitecap Dakota ‘First Nation’ is not part of any of the numbered treaties in Saskatchewan because Dakota people were viewed as native Americans rather than British or Canadian.

“The Dakota were allies of the British before Confederation and fought alongside the British in the War of 1812. In return, the British promised to protect Dakota territory, but when they signed a peace treaty with the U.S. in 1814, they handed jurisdiction of the Dakota territory south of the 49th parallel to the U.S…”
http://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/whitecap-dakota-nation-treaty-framework-1.4502549 }

“Whitecap Dakota ‘First Nation’ is located just south of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan…

“A key element of the discussions going forward will be the means to formally recognize the relationship between Whitecap and the Crown…”
{They are Canadian citizens…}

–‘Whitecap Dakota First Nation and Canada Sign Historic Framework Agreement towards Treaty’,
News Release from ‘Indigenous’ and Northern Affairs Canada, January 22, 2018

Feature IMAGE: Federal ‘Indigenous’ and Northern Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett and Whitecap Dakota Chief Darcy Bear (Saskatoon StarPhoenix)


Chief Darcy Bear (left), Councillor Dwayne Eagle (centre) and Councillor Dalyn Bear (right) are sworn in in 2016. (Photo–Whitecap Dakota ‘First Nation’)

“What we’re looking for out of this – we’ve indicated to Canada –certainly the benefits of the number of treaties, additional land base for Whitecap,”
Whitecap Dakota Chief Darcy Bear said…
“Resources for economic development, some capital resources for some investment in the community and some resources for language and culture programming in Whitecap.”

“In the 1870s, Dakota Chief Whitecap was present at both Treaty 4 and 6 discussions, but was not invited to sign the documents.
{Is that because he was an America Sioux who had only settled in Canada in 1862, fleeing the States after being involved in the massacre of 800 ‘settlers’? If so, why are they entitled to a Treaty?}

“As a result, Whitecap Dakota ‘First Nation ‘received significantly less land than those belonging to Treaty ‘First Nations’ – 16 acres versus 128.

“To make up for that lost time, land, and rights, Chief Bear expressed interest in an aggressive timeline for treaty negotiations with the aim for Whitecap to be even more sustainable, self-reliant and eventually expand its land base to Saskatoon {Where they could establish an ‘urban reserve’, with all the unfair tax advantages that entails…}.

The agreement doesn’t just close the gaps said the minister, Carolyn Bennett, it goes beyond

{And that’s a big part of the problem. No one is actually negotiating on behalf of the Canadian people… Furthermore, this ‘Treaty’ is simply giving this Band money and free land, when they are already doing quite fine without a treaty, and can afford to BUY their land – like everyone else…}

Its unemployment rate is five per cent and an estimated 500 people commute from Saskatoon to the ‘First Nation’ on a daily basis for work…”

–‘Whitecap Dakota First Nation, Ottawa sign framework agreement for treaty’,
Meaghan Craig, Global News, January 22, 2018

“…under Chief Darcy Bear, Whitecap Dakota now includes an award winning golf course, casino, school, early learning centre, and health centre. The reserve now has modern infrastructure, provides hundreds of jobs to individuals from both on and off the reserve, and is in the process of obtaining ‘self-governance’…”


“As we foster new relationships {!?!}, we find the means to promote and advance our history, culture, language, and education programs. Investing in areas depleted over time through colonization, we ultimately invest back in our people…”
–Chief Darcy Bear


{Never a mention of the benefits of ‘colonization’ from Aboriginal leadership, even as they type English on a computer – all of which allows them to connect to the larger world…while they receive funding from the ‘colonizers’…}

Statue of Wapahaska near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

‘The Historical Background’:
“White Cap was chief of a group of American Dakota Santee Sioux…

“In 1862, White Cap’s tribe was part of a Sioux uprising in Minnesota. Racial tensions exploded in Minnesota, when a couple of young Indian hotheads shot a few settlers at a remote farm.

“A Sioux Chief, Little Crow, knowing the {justifiable} repercussions that would follow, led a pre-emptive Indian uprising. Over a period of four weeks, as many as 800 Whites were killed, as well as 60 Sioux. Until Sept. 11, 2001, it was the largest loss of civilian life during a war in American history.

(“On two days in August, 1862, some 650 Sioux warriors attacked the town of New Ulm, Minnesota…where some 1,500 Whites had barricaded themselves in the centre of town. After the second attack, the inhabitants fled in a huge wagon train for a fort some 30 miles away. The Sioux burned New Ulm to the ground.”)

“The US Army, and winter starvation, ended the rebellion in a few weeks.

White Cap and Little Crow fled, north to Canada, taking their tribe to Fort Garry, thereby escaping the largest mass hanging in US history, at Mankato, MN, when 38 Sioux warriors were hanged in a group for their part in the rebellion
{White Cap and his Band were never punished for the U.S. massacre…}

Mankato hanging (Sioux Uprising, 1862)

“White Cap moved to Saskatchewan… When the Riel Rebellion broke out, they refused all entreaties to join the rebels in their fight against the Government troops {? See below}.

“In the end, White Cap…was forced to come “on side”. When the battles were lost, White Cap and his people fled…”

–‘The Story of White Cap’,




Following the Dakota uprising in Minnesota in 1862, Whitecap (Wapahaska) was one of several Santee leaders, including the elder Standing Buffalo, who took their people, largely ‘Shooters at Trees Sissetons’ in his case, to Canada along the Souris River, initially living in the Fort Ellice and Fort Qu’Appelle areas, living peacefully alongside those traditional enemies of the Sioux, the Assiniboin; then, in the early 1870s, moving south of Moose Mountains in present day southeast Saskatchewan and mixing with the Yankton and Yanktonais who frequented that area and hunted both sides of the Canadian/US border…

“…they were concerned when the government began to negotiate ‘Treaty Number Four’ with the Cree, Assiniboin and Ojibwa and wanted to know if they could continue to live under British protection. Eventually, they were allowed to select reserves, as long as they were not too near the border in case they were used as a refuge for ‘American’ Sioux

“His Band initially continued to live the traditional lifestyle and when the buffalo herds disappeared, they settled at Moose Woods in 1881, the present site of the Whitecap Indian Reserve, where they farmed and worked as wage labourers in Prince Albert and the surrounding area; indeed, their relations with the local whites were so good that White Cap is credited with helping John Lake set up his agricultural and temperance colony which eventually became Saskatoon. He is also recognised for protecting the young community by securing the Métis’ promise not to attack in return for his joining them at Batoche {?}

“White Cap was unwillingly {?} swept into the 1885 Resistance and following Riel’s surrender, he was tried for treason-felony at Regina. His presence was noted as a member of the Métis council at Batoche and one witness saw him with a gun in the rifle pits, although the defence counsel questioned how easy it would have been to pick one man out of close to 150 fellow Indians in the heat of battle. He later claimed to have fled and one witness, Doctor Gerald Willoughby, testified that he had met the Santee leader at this time and he had complained that he had been forced to attend the Métis council under duress (although George Woodcock, in his book on Gabriel Dumont, gives the impression that White Cap could not be persuaded to turn back by the ‘Orangemen’ of Saskatoon)…

“After the rebellion, White Cap’s people made their way back to the reserve and switched to raising cattle. Gradually, they developed one of the largest and most efficient slaughter and breeding-stock herds in the district, and expanded to include dairy cattle and draught horses. When the price of cattle fell in 1905, they opened possibly the first commercial feedlot in Canada, wintering cattle on consignment for settlers, and finishing slaughter animals for meat buyers and packers. After World War Two, they were unable to remain competitive in this area and many sought employment away from the reserve…”


Photo of White Cap taken during his captivity

“Whitecap, the Dakota Sioux chief from Moose Woods, was held at the Original Humboldt site as a government prisoner after the fall of Batoche. He would be charged with treason-felony since he had not only been present at Métis headquarters during the fighting, but was also the only Indian member of Louis Riel’s governing council.

“At his Regina trial on 18 September 1885, Whitecap had a white witness, the Dakota-speaking Gerald Willoughby of Saskatoon. Willoughby testified that the Chief and his Band had been forcibly taken from their reserve to Batoche by a large Métis force in early April and that the citizens of Saskatoon were helpless to stop it.
{Yet, more than one witness – including a hostage – described the group as comprising around 60 men, 40 of whom were commanded by White Cap. So how was he being “forcibly taken…by a large Metis force”, when most of the force was comprised of his men? See below…}

“He also described Whitecap as a loyal Indian who was always a welcome guest in homes throughout the district.

“This testimony saved Whitecap from probable conviction. In fact, according to the surviving Department of Justice notes about the trial, the Crown prosecutor privately acknowledged that Whitecap was at Batoche against his will. The jury came to the same conclusion – after deliberating for only fifteen minutes, it returned with a verdict of not guilty.

Judge Richardson, who normally lectured the accused before passing sentence, seemed surprised by the acquittal and pronounced simply,

“You are now a free man again.”

–‘Original Humboldt Site’,


So, the jury believed that White Cap was an unwilling participant in the Rebellion; yet, we have recollections like this:

“…The next morning, White Cap returned with the Metis, and Welsh asked him if they had orders to get {steal} his supplies. Vermette and Carrier replied that Gabriel Dumont and Maxime Lepine had given them definite orders to seize his stores. Welsh says that White Cap and Charles Trottier then forced him to travel north with them toward Saskatoon. There were about 40 men in White Cap’s brigade… Welsh got away from the group at Saskatoon…

“At trial, witnesses said that an armed Metis group…coerced White Cap into this. Norbert Welsh does not agree with this version of events:

“White Cap declared that the rumor was not true, and that he and his Band would go through, that nobody would stop him…”

“White Cap’s group did not arrive at Batoche until April 10, 1885… White Cap was made a member of the ‘Exovedate’ {Riel’s name for the Provisional Government}. Some historians say that his attendance was simply symbolic since he only spoke Dakota, and likely had little understanding of the proceedings.

“This interpretation is just not believable because White Cap and his group had hunted with the Metis buffalo hunters for over 23 years at that point. Moreover, Charles Trottier was fluent in Dakota and Gabriel Dumont did speak some Dakota (as did many of the other Metis fighters). Witnesses said that during the defense of Batoche, they were seen conversing…

“After the battle of Tourond’s Coulee, a number of Wapahaska’s {White Cap’s} people slipped away at night… They had left all their food, teepees and footwear behind and were destitute… {Interestingly enough} Sir John A. Macdonald became involved and indicated that the Dakota were not to be left to starve… Extra food was given…to distribute to White Cap’s group. Lash also sent the wounded warriors to Fort Qu’Appelle to be treated by the military physician {!}…”

–excerpted from “Wah-pah-ha-ska (White Cap and the 1885 Northwest Resistance)”,
Lawrence J. Barkwell


This family was part of Wapahaska’s Band.

“Chief Wapahaska (White Cap) and his band settled along the South Saskatchewan River, and received a 16.774 km2 (6.476 sq mi) reserve in June 1881, despite not having signed a treaty.”
{And despite participating in armed rebellion against the government of Canada. And despite their involvement previously in the American massacre. Why, then, were they given a reserve?}


They are being given ‘Treaty land’ in Canada even though their ‘traditional territory’ is in the U.S.

“The Whitecap Dakota ‘First Nation’ {a ‘nation’ of 658 people} is part of the larger Dakota-Nakata-Lakota ‘Nation’ whose traditional governance structure was called the ‘Seven Council Fires’ or ‘Oceti Sakowin’, whose lands extended into both Canada and the United States.

“The Dakota have a long-standing relationship with the British Crown, dating back to wampum ceremonies in 1762. A significant testament to this relationship is a Treaty between the British and the Dakota in 1787. The Dakota honored this treaty as military allies of the British Crown in the American Revolution and in the War of 1812.

“The British promised to always protect and honor the promises made to the Dakota. In 1862, following an ‘uprising’ in Minnesota, the Dakota, led by Chief Whitecap, Chief Standing Buffalo and Chief Littlecrow, followed their old trade routes along the Souris River and entered their old {former} territories. But they were confronted with a new border they helped create during the War of 1812. The Chiefs brought with them the medals and flags given to them by the British and reminded the officials of the promises which were made to them…”


See also:
Canada’s Newest Tribe’ (Qalipu/Newfoundland) {January 11, 2017}:
“Instead of ending Segregation and Race Based Law, our governments are still engaged in expanding them:

“…in 2008 the Government of Canada and the Federation of the Newfoundland Indians reached an agreement to create the new Qalipu Mi’kmaq Indian ‘First Nation’.”

 ‘Is Canada Coming Unravelled?’ (Aboriginal Separatism) {May 4, 2016}:
“Most Canadians are blissfully unaware that many aboriginal leaders are attempting to create separate, independent ‘nations’ {countries} within the borders of Canada — ‘nations’ that would ignore Canadian law while still being subsidized by the Canadian people…”

All Is Not Well In B.C.’ (‘Parallel Governments’ and Property Rights) {September 19, 2015}:
“We will assert our right to overcome the provincial jurisdiction. The province will have no more say in how they run ‘our land’, how they manage ‘our resources’. They will have no more say in the foreshore, they will have no more say in the water rights, they will have no more say in how forest tenures are handed out. We have put them on notice.”
–Sechelt (‘shishalh’) Chief Calvin Craigan


British Columbia To End Treaty Commission?{March 29, 2015}:
“We have documented previously {see below} the Billion-dollar boondoggle that is the B.C. Treaty process and the ahistorical nonsense that Treaties are even needed in B.C., as well as the historical fact that B.C.’s arrangement with the federal government upon joining Canada was that B.C. had no Constitutional role or responsibility for ‘Indians’, except to provide Crown land for reserves… We also can’t help but wonder if the citizens will ever be repaid the money that was “loaned” to tribes for the purpose of Treaty negotiations…”

The Never-Ending Treaty Process{January 25, 2015}:
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